發生在中國漁場的索賠事件

來源:北英保賠協會 

 

      據報道,商船誤入養殖區事件大多發生在山東嵐山附近。涉及船舶誤入養殖區事故的一部分養殖區的存在時間相對較短,當局并未在實地設置明顯標示進行警示。當地海事局在官網上發布事故高發養殖區的航行警告和航行通知,但是據了解,很多養殖區并未在中國地圖上進行標示。為減少養殖區索賠糾紛,協會通代建議航經或停靠包括嵐山在內的養殖區附近港口船舶,在規劃路線時充分考慮通函中所提養殖區位置、抵港前與代理確認進入錨地和航路以及養殖區分布、避免夜間停泊、船舶保持適當瞭望并與交管中心和引航站保持密切聯系、船長與引航員進行充分溝通以獲得主航道的導航方法。

 

      詳情請查看協會中國通代發來的以下報告:

 

      請結合我司(華泰通代)之前發布的關于中國嵐山養殖區賠案更新進展的多份通函來閱讀本文。為幫助客戶了解當地現狀,以預防此類索賠案件發生,并引起客戶對中國其他區域類似索賠的關注,我們(華泰通代)特地制作了本通函。

 

    首先,我司(華泰經紀)注意到2017年我們在中國共處理71起船舶進入養殖區的索賠案件,其中發生在嵐山(山東省)的案件數量占總數的一半以上---48起,發生在寧德(福建省)的案件數量位居第二---4起,緊隨其后的是上海、山東龍口和山東萊州,各發生3起索賠。以上是我們(華泰通代)僅通過我們處理過的案件進行的分析,統計數據可能不夠詳盡,但仍然具有代表性,因為華泰通代是十二家國際保賠協會以及世界上大多數其他保賠險保險公司的通代。


為幫助船東深入了解事故多發地區的養殖區現狀,最大限度減少誤入養殖區的風險,我司當地辦公室(青島華泰以及廈門華泰)對嵐山和寧德養殖區索賠情況進行專項調查,現為您做出如下更新:

 

山東嵐山養殖區索賠情況

    根據我司記錄,中國嵐山港附近養殖區在2017年發生了48起索賠事件,其中超過一半的索賠發送在下圖A區,約6起發生在下圖B區。區域AB的位置如下所示。



A區是2017年才出現的養殖區,當地海事局和船舶代理對于此區域的信息非常有限,因此該區域未能引起過往船只的足夠重視。

 

為了改善現狀,保證船舶航行安全,我們(華泰通代)近期與當地海事局、海洋漁業局以及當地漁民村委會進行了進一步調查,現更新情況如下:

 

1. 2017年底,結合我們(華泰通代)處理的事故情況,我們(華泰通代)發現有一個新的養殖區出現,在上圖標記為F區域,坐標如下:

   F1: 35°11’23.43’’N, 119°59’36.03’’E

   F2: 35°10’52.35’’N, 119°59’36.03’’E

   F3: 35°10’52.34’’N, 120°00’54.73’’E

   F4: 35°11’23.43’’N, 120°00’54.74’’E

 

2. 當地政府正計劃拆除部分位于港區內阻礙通航的養殖區。根據政府規劃,之前通函中提到的D區域屬于未來拆除范圍之內,但目前還沒有拆除其他養殖區的計劃。同時,由于拆遷需要大筆資金,到目前為止尚無詳細時間表出臺。

 

3. 當地海事局在官網上發布事故高發養殖區的航行警告和航行通知,但是除了G區域以外,中國地圖或海圖上都沒有對海事局通知中所提養殖區進行標注。此外,因為部分養殖區遠離海岸線且在海事局船舶交通管理覆蓋區域之外,海事局無法對經過這些區域的船舶進行實時監控。此外,當局沒有在航道附近分散的養殖區周圍設置明顯警示標志。

 

4. 嵐山附近養殖區位于山東和江蘇兩省交界附近,兩省對于各自管轄區域存在一些爭議。嵐山港附近大部分養殖區位于日照海事局船舶交通管理基線附近,但日照海事局對該區域沒有實際管轄權。該區域在行政上歸連云港海事局管轄,但其地理位置卻距離連云港較遠。簡而言之,該地區航行安全方面管理工作尚無良好規劃。

 

此外,海洋漁業局負責對海域使用和海洋水產養殖進行監管,海事局負責對海上交通和航行安全進行監管。在兩個不同主管機構的管理之下,盡管對周邊區域航行安全造成了威脅,養殖區還是獲批位于航道、航路和錨地附近位置。

 

5. 總體而言,因為當地漁民持有有效的海域使用證以及養殖許可證,所以他們的養殖活動是合法的。然而,在我們(華泰通代)的索賠處理過程中,因為發現某些養殖區在特定時間段內已經發生多起過往船只誤入事件,我們通過檢索區域內船舶的導航數據,已經成功地駁回了一些漁民的重復索賠請求。

 

值得一提的是,養殖區分布廣泛,每個養殖區被劃分為若干個小區域,每個小區域的長度超過1000米,寬度超過500米。因此,盡管不同船舶進入同一養殖區是不同步的,但由于船舶進入的地點以及受損范圍并不完全相同,這并不意味著同一養殖區在短時間內再次提出的索賠請求是無效和重復的。需要具體情況具體分析。

 

6. 我們(華泰通代)正在與海事局、交通部、海圖出版機構等相關機構進行溝通協調,呼吁在海圖上對養殖區位置進行標注,以此警示過往船只,避免誤入養殖區事故發生。

 

于此同時,為減少養殖區索賠,我們(華泰通代)對停靠或航經嵐山港船舶提出以下建議:

 

1. 在航行路線規劃階段,請將通函中所提及的養殖區納入考慮范圍,并請特別注意區域A。此外,在船舶到達嵐山港之前,請與當地代理確認進入錨地和港口的航路以及養殖區分布。

 

2. 船舶應保持適當瞭望,并與船舶交通管理中心和引航站保持密切聯系。此外,在引航員登輪前,船長不應盲目依照船舶交通管理和引航站推薦的路線。因為船長負責船舶的安全航行,船長應根據現有資料信息,仔細檢查周邊海域,特別注意前方影響航行的船只(船附近可能有養殖區),然后做出正確決定。

 

3. 如果您有任何疑問,請隨時與華泰青島辦事處取得聯系。

 

福建寧德市養殖區索賠案件

    可以在寧德港航道以及錨地附近觀察到水產養殖場。根據相關信息,外籍船只以及總噸大于50000船舶的主要停靠碼頭是大唐電廠碼頭、鼎鑫碼頭以及張灣碼頭。船只經東沖口進入三沙灣后,船只可以在通過50000t航道和白馬門航道后停泊在大唐電廠碼頭和鼎鑫碼頭,或者船舶可以選擇通過50000t航道、白匏島和張灣運營區域后停靠張灣碼頭。根據過去的現場勘驗記錄以及衛星地圖可知,進出三沙灣的水道被蘆筍、海帶等水產養殖區包圍,部分水道甚至被養殖場占據。



三沙灣地區供外籍船舶和大型船舶使用的主要錨地是東沖口引航/檢疫錨地,但該錨地面積較小,且幾乎都被小型沿海船舶所占據。在正常情況下,當船舶向當地船舶代理詢問錨泊位置時,代理不會提供精確的錨泊位置,相反,代理會建議船舶在東沖口合適位置拋錨,然后向代理和寧德船舶交通管理報告錨位。考慮到東沖口(西洋島附近)海帶養殖區域向深水區逐年擴張,該海域內存在許多套網養殖區,船舶應盡量避免在能見度低的時候或在夜間進入該海域或拋錨。此外,錨泊位置應盡可能遠離岸邊,船舶應加強對船舶周圍海域的監視。



    根據之前案件的現場調查信息,船舶誤入水產養殖區位置主要有兩個,包括青山島東航道以及白匏島附近航道,如上圖所示區域AB。船舶進入水產養殖場的原因如下:

 

    上述兩個航道的水流流速高達3 ~ 5節,且航道狹窄,轉彎角度大。漲潮或退潮時,由于受潮流影響,舵效較差。

 

    有許多漁業輔助船以及漁船穿越航道,使得船舶避碰空間非常有限。

 

    在主航道周圍,甚至在航道的某些地方,都有密集的水產養殖場。因此,如果船舶不能在避開其他船舶后及時返回主航道,就會很容易的進入主航道周圍的水產養殖場。

 

為應對這種情況,我們(華泰通代)提出以下建議:

 

l 船舶應于抵港前與當地代理或有關部門確認航道、港口情況,制定合理的航行計劃,避免夜間在該區域停泊。

l 引航員登輪后,船長應與引航員進行充分溝通以獲得主航道的導航方法,并注意控制航速。

l 進港前,船舶需要在船艏安排瞭望人員,備雙錨(把錨放到錨鏈筒外,與海面垂直,隨時準備使用)。

l 如果船舶不可避免地進入水產養殖場區域內,應立即停止發動機,放下雙錨來停船,并致電當地代理或主管部門申請協助。

 

    我們希望以上信息能對您有所幫助。如有任何疑問,請隨時與我們聯系。

 

Reference is made to a series of our previous circulars on fishery farm claims at Lanshan, China, updating the situation and development there. In order to help our clients to understand the current local situation to further prevent claims of this kind and to draw their attention to similar claims in other areas in China, we have prepared this circular.

 

To start with, we note that we have handled overall 71 fishery farm entry claims in China in 2017, among which Lanshan (Shandong province) accounted for over half----48 claims, and Ningde (Fujian province) came second with 4 claims, followed by Shanghai, Longkou (Shandong province) and Laizhou (Shandong province), each having 3. Only being able to analyze the cases we have handled, the statistics may not be exhaustive, but nevertheless representative, since we are listed correspondent for 12 IG Clubs and most of other P&I insurers in the world.

 

 To help owners further understand the current situation and minimize risks of breaking into fishery farms in these accident-prone areas, our local offices (Huatai Qingdao and Huatai Xiamen) have conducted special investigation at Lanshan and Ningde, and would update as follows for your reference.

 

Fishery Farm Claims at Lanshan, Shandong Province  According to our record, in 2017 there have been about 48 accidents of claimed entry into the fishery farms off Lanshan port, China, among which more than half occurred in area A and about 6 accidents occurred in area B. Locations of area A and B are illustrated below.  

 

 Area A was the fishery farm that just appeared since last year, and the information available to the local MSA and the ship’s agent is still very limited, so that it hasn’t drawn sufficient attention from pass-by vessels.  

 

In order to help improve the situation for the sake of safe navigation of the ships, we have recently made further investigations with local MSA, Oceanic and Fishery Bureau, as well as the village committee of the local fish farmers, and hereby update the situation as follows:

 

1. In the end of 2017, it is noted from the accidents we handled that a new fishery farm came into existence, which is marked as Area F in the above map with coordinates as follows:

   F1: 35°11’23.43’’N, 119°59’36.03’’E

   F2: 35°10’52.35’’N, 119°59’36.03’’E

   F3: 35°10’52.34’’N, 120°00’54.73’’E

   F4: 35°11’23.43’’N, 120°00’54.74’’E

 

2. The local government is planning to remove some of the fishery farms located within the port area and obstructing the navigation. Area D mentioned in our previous circular is within the scope to be removed in the future as per the plan, and there is no plan to remove the other fishery farms for now. Meantime, as substantial fund is needed for the removal, no detailed schedule has been made so far.  

 

3. Local MSA published warnings and notices for the accident-prone fishery farms on their website, but none of these fishery farms notified on MSA website was marked on the Chinese charts and/or nautical charts saving for Area G. Furthermore, as some fishery farms are far from the coastline and outside the VTS cover area of MSA, MSA is unable to carry out real time monitoring over the vessels passing by such areas. In addition, there aren’t obvious warning marks around the scattering fishery farms close to the navigation channel.

 

4. The fishery farms off Lanshan are located nearby the boundary of Shandong province and Jiangsu province, and there have been certain disputes between these two provinces over the regions under their respective jurisdiction. Most of the fishery farms off the Lanshan port are near the VTS baseline of Rizhao MSA, but Rizhao MSA has no actual jurisdiction over this area. This area is administratively under the jurisdiction of Lianyungang MSA, but is physically far from Lianyungang. In short, administration on safe navigation in this area is not well organized.  

 

Furthermore, the Oceanic and Fishery Bureau is responsible for supervision of the sea area use and marine aquaculture, and MSA is in charge of supervision of marine traffic and navigation safety. Under two different administration organizations, fishery farms have been approved to be located near the channel, fairway and anchorages, though with threat to navigation safety nearby.  

 

5. Generally speaking, the local fish farmers hold valid Sea Area Use Certificates and Farming Licenses so that their farming activities are legally sound. However, as certain fishery farms were entered by the passing-by vessels for more than once in a certain period, during our claims handling, we have successfully rejected some duplicate claims of the fish farmers by retrieving ships’ navigation data within this area during this period.  

 

It is worth mentioning that the fishery farms are widespread, and each fishery farm is divided into numbers of small areas, with the length of each small area at more than 1000m, and width at more than 500m. Therefore, though different vessels entered into the same fishery farm asynchronously, as the location of entry and damaged scope was not exactly the same, it does not necessarily follow that the second claim brought by the same fishery farm within a short period is invalid and repetitive. Each case needs to be examined carefully.

 

6. We are now discussing and coordinating with the MSA, Ministry of Transport, the chart publishing authority, and some other relevant organizations, urging them to plot the fishery farms on the chart, so as to alert the passing-by vessels to avoid break-in accidents.  

 

 In the meantime, we have the following recommendations to ships calling or passing Lanshan port with view to minimizing fish farm claims:

 

1. In route planning, kindly take into account the fishery farms described in our circulars, with special attention and caution to area A. In addition, before the ship’s arrival at Lanshan port, kindly check with the local agent about the route to enter the anchorage and the port, as well as the distribution of the fishery farms.  

 

2. The vessels shall maintain a proper lookout, and keep close contact with the VTS center and the pilot station. In addition, the Master shall not blindly follow the recommended route of the VTS and pilot station before the pilot attending on board. The Master shall in light of the available information, carefully observe the surrounding sea area, and pay particular attention to the boats ahead affecting the navigation (there might be fishery farms nearby the boats), and then make the correct decision, as the Master shall be responsible for the safe navigation.  

 

3. Should you have any query, please feel free to contact our Qingdao Office:

   Huatai Insurance Agency & Consultant Service Ltd., Qingdao Branch  

Tel: +86 532 8502 1883

   Duty Mobile: +86 186 5328 9883

Email: qingdao@huatai-serv.com

 

Fishery Farm Claims at Ningde, Fujian Province   

Aquiculture farms are observed near Ningde Port channel and anchorage. According to relevant information, the main terminals which the foreign ships and ships DWT 50000 tons may call are the Datang Power Plant Terminal, Dingxin Terminal and Zhangwan Terminal. After the ship enters Sansha Bay via Dongchongkou, the ship may choose to berth at Datang Power Plant and Dingxin Terminal after passing through the 50000t channel and Baimamen, or the ships may choose to berth at Zhangwan Terminal after passing through the 50000t channel, Baipao Island and the channel of Zhangwan operation area. Based on the past site survey records and satellite maps, it can be seen that the relevant waterways entering and leaving the Sansha Bay are surrounded by the asparagus and kelp aquiculture areas, and some part of channels are even occupied by the farms.

 

 The main anchorage of Sansha Bay area for foreign ships and large ships is the pilot/quarantine anchorage which is out of the Dongchongkou, but this anchorage is small and is almost always occupied by small coastal ships. Under normal circumstances, when a ship inquires about anchoring position with the local ship agent, the agent will not give an accurate anchoring position, instead, they will suggest the ship to find a suitable position out of the Dongchongkou to drop anchor, and then report the anchor position to the agent and Ningde VTS. Considering the fact that the kelp culture area of Dongchongkou (near the Xiyang Island) are expanding to the deep water year by year, and there are many set-net fishery farms in this area, the ship should try to avoid entering this area or anchoring during poor visibility or at night. Furthermore, the anchoring position shall be as far as possible from the shore side, and the ship shall strengthen lookout of the waters around the ship.

 

According to site survey of previous cases, ships’ entering into the aquiculture farms mainly occurred at two positions, including the east channel of Qingshan Island and the channel near Baipao Island, as shown in the above map as area A and B. The causes of ships’ entering into aquiculture farms are listed as follows:

 

The current in the aforesaid two channels is strong as high as 3 ~ 5 knots; meantime the channel is narrow and the turning angle is large. During tide rising or ebbing, the rudder effect is poor due to the tidal current.

 

There are many fishery auxiliary boats and fishing boats crossing the channel so that the space for ship avoidance is very limited.

 

There are dense aquiculture farms spreading around the main channel and even in the channel at some parts. Therefore, if the ship fails to return to the main channel timely after avoiding other ships, she can easily enter into the aquiculture farms around the main channel.

 

To cope with the situation, we have following recommendations:   

 

Before arrival at the port, the ship shall be familiar with situation of the channel and port via local agent or authorities, formulate a proper voyage plan and avoid anchoring in this area during night.

 

After pilot is onboard, the master shall fully communicate with the pilot to understand the navigation method of the main channel and pay attention to controlling the ship speed.

 

Before entering the port, the ship shall arrange the lookout at the forecastle, prepare the double anchors (Drop the anchor out of hawse pipe, perpendicular to the water surface, ready for use).

 

If the ship inevitably enters the aquiculture farm, she should immediately stop the engine and drop the double anchors to stop the ship, and call the local agent or authority to apply for assistance.  

 

We hope the above is of assistance. Any query, please feel free to contact us.

 

 

 

 





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